Promenade. Overground and Underground in France: The Market at Limoges; Catacombae, Sepulchrum Romanum

Mussorgsky promenades again, this time in a grand repetition of the very first Promenade at the beginning of the work, with a few subtle alterations and even more breadth. He is reasserting his own presence, and reminding us both of his self-appointed role as guide, and of his personal musical theme – a theme which will slip in again later, but in partial disguise. The ending elongates the value of the last few chords until we land on B flat and pause – and are suddenly thrown back into France, this time to the marketplace in Limoges.

The original painting is lost, but Mussorgsky’s colourful  musical picture is full of bustle and noise, excited chatter, arguments, gossip, laughter, busyness. Repeated chords tax the wrist, unexpected sf’s prod and poke through the texture, and a final cacophonous burst of energy sees the hands alternating in  furious demisemiquavers, reaching a fever-pitch crescendo …

Then, with the unexpected shock of a light suddenly extinguished, we’re underground. It is dark, cold, cavernous and echoing. And full of bones. From marketplace life above ground, crowded with teeming humanity, to eerie death below ground, crowded with the serried ranks of skeletal remains, in the Catacombs under the streets of Paris. And here is the picture – showing Victor Hartmann and fellow architect Victor Kenel in their top hats, looking at the bones, while a guide holds the lantern.



Browsing through a  copy of ‘The Diamond Guide to the Stranger in Paris’ of 1867,    I found this –

‘The Catacombs, ancient stone quarries, lie on the south of Paris. Those which are within the perimeters of the old barriers have been converted into a vast bone receptacle, whither have been transported, during the Revolution and since, the products of the exhumations made in the ancient cemetaries of Paris (upwards of six millions of dead). About seventy staircases give access to the catacombs.

The galleries of the bone caverns are lined with a double row of human bones (2 yards and a quarter in width). The cornice is everywhere formed of bare skulls …’

Slow-moving, massive chords give an idea of space and perspective; quieter chords return the echoes. The second part of the piece bears the title: ‘Con mortuis in lingua morta.‘ Mussorgsky jotted on the manuscript: “NB – Latin text: With the dead in a dead language” and, along the right margin, “Well may it be in Latin! The creative spirit of the dead Hartmann leads me towards the skulls, invokes them; the skulls begin to glow softly from within.”  Beneath a trembling right hand, we hear the ghostly and mysterious tread of Mussorgsky’s promenade theme, in a minor key, picking its way stealthily amongst the bones as he himself enters into the picture.

Below is a remarkable photograph in the catacombs taken in about 1870 by the French photographer, Nadar, using artificial light underground.

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Two Paintings – one Picture. Samuel Goldenberg and Schmuyle

Again we are privileged to be able to view the two paintings which inspired the next piece in Mussorgsky’s Pictures at an Exhibition.  They belonged to Mussorgsky; Hartmann himself had presented them to him, and Mussorgsky lent them to the exhibition. The catalogue described them: Two Jews, Rich and Poor, and the understanding is that their nationality was Polish.

Mussorgsky cleverly combines the two in one musical sketch, by at first giving each a different voice heard independently; then he brings them together.



The wealthy gentleman, Samuel Goldenberg, sweeps in at a majestic pace, with augmented seconds adding a spicy touch of the exotic to his imperiously announced theme.



Poverty-stricken Schmuyle’s theme begs and pleads in falling LH phrases, while the RH doubles the melody in a tricky, repeated note ornamentation. And then follows Mussorgsky’s masterstroke as the two characters combine, the LH disdainfully proud, the RH desperately insistent.

Silence descends. Two half-hearted, wheedling requests are abruptly pushed aside; a last attempt is refused with rude finality. And that’s that.



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Cattle and chickens: Bydlo, Promenade, The Ballet of the Unhatched Chickens in their Shells

We’re roughly thrust across countries, classes and cultures into a world of harsh brutality in the next piece, ‘Bydlo’, the Polish word for cattle. The painting, now lost, showed a Polish cart on huge wooden wheels, drawn by oxen. We can hear it lumbering along, the grinding LH struggling to move forward, mired in the depths of G sharp minor, while the RH intones a slow-moving, ponderous melody. Mussorgsky’s craftsmanship turns the descending minor 3rd motif of the preceding  Tuileries’  B major top line  into the rising minor 3rd of Bydlo’s bass in the relative minor, giving a subtle, unconscious unity to the two pictures, heard next to each other without an intervening Promenade.
In the middle section, phrases are heard again and again – there’s no escape; we’re going nowhere fast, in fact we’re going nowhere at all. Thick and clumsy, the wheels seem stuck in a rut, until with a huge effort and a massive crescendo the cart pulls free and moves forward painfully slowly, the oxen straining against the weight as they gradually lumber out of sight.
Mussorgsky shocks us without apology after the genteel refinement of  the Tuileries. The following Promenade also gives pause for thought. Starting in a high range, it falters, with unexpected silences.  Frowning minor 2nds appear in deep LH octaves, and the RH follows suit, in angular discomfort. Is Mussorgsky unsettled by the vision of rural Polish poverty after the opulent urban wealth of the Parisian Tuileries?
But suddenly, something catches his eye. Looking ahead, the mood changes; with an anticipatory octave leap and a flurry of hushed, pecking acciacciaturas   …
Mussorsgky has now turned to a gem of a painting, a watercolour which which can still  be viewed in the  Institute of Russian Literature (Pushkin House), Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg. Or below –
Yes, at last we can see the original inspiration for one of Mussorgsky’s Pictures. It is a costume sketch for a ballet named ‘Trilby’, written in 1870 by composer Yuli Gerber and choreographer Marius Petipa, who was named  premier maître de ballet  of St Perersburg’s Imperial Theatres in 1871; the ballet was performed in St Petersburg in that year. The exhibition catalogue described the sketch: ‘Canary chicks, enclosed as in suits of armour. Instead of headdress, canary heads put on like helmets down to the neck.’
With quick, darting movements, high-pitched chirrups, deft trills and pattering staccatos, the little chicks pirouette, peck and dance their way through the piece, until with a final squawk and a quick bow – they disappear. Irresistible.
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Promenade; Tuileries – Fun and Games in the Gardens

After the shadowed reverie induced by Il Vecchio Castello, it’s as if Mussorgsky needs a brisk walk to shake himself up a little. The final G# is used as a pivot to turn us into the bright sunshine of B major in this Promenade, with the melody confidently proclaimed in bare octaves, striding along … until a sudden halt, and a repeat of the characteristic three-note motif of the melody, as if something caught Mussorgsky’s eye mid-stride, causing him to pause and retrace his steps…

Marche Triomphale 1860s ParisHartmann travelled widely in Europe, and here we find him in Paris. His picture, Tuileries, subtitled The dispute of Children after Play, is lost. It showed a group of children with their nurses. But here is an 1860s photograph of some French children dressed as soldiers in a little marching band [photographer unknown] and below is an 1867 painting by Adolf von Menzel , Tuileries, which must give some idea of the scene. There were twice-weekly concerts in the gardens, attended by the great and the good.

1024px-Adolf_Friedrich_Erdmann_von_Menzel_038Listen to the childish banter of Mussorgsky’s children as they tease and taunt in a sing-song, high-pitched, back-and-forth, over-and-over two-note motif, interspersed with chattering semiquavers. A woebegone little interlude intervenes, sounding rather crestfallen, then with a quicksilver change of emotion the teasing re-erupts, voices are raised and the jabbing harmonies become spiteful. At last, order is restored and the children’s happiness returns, until with a quick scampering up the piano – they’ve gone.


Manet’s well-known painting of 1862, Music in the Tuileries, also helps the imagination.

Music in the Tuileries Gardens 1862






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Face to Face with Mussorgsky – via a Picture at an Exhibition

In a chance conversation after a recent recital at which I performed Mussorgsky’s Pictures at an Exhibition, an audience member reminded me about the current exhibition, Russia and the Arts: The Age of Tolstoy and Tchaikovsky  at the National Portrait Gallery in London. So today I went to see it … and came face to face with Mussorgsky, in the iconic portrait by Ilya Repin, painted in March 1881. The sittings for the portrait were between 3rd-5th March in a hospital ward in St Petersburg, where Mussorgsky had been admitted owing to chronic alcoholism. Repin had wanted another sitting – but sadly, Mussorgsky died on 16th March.

Mussorgsky - by Ilya Repin

On either side of Mussorgsky’s portrait are those of two other musical giants: Anton Rubinstein and Tchaikovsky. On another wall is Rimsky-Korsakov; elsewhere, Chaliapin, Akhmatova, Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, Chekhov and a host of other important Russian artistic figures. Vladimir Stasov is there, too – he whose idea it was to mount the exhibition of Hartmann’s paintings which were Mussorgsky’s inspiration. And discreetly playing in the background are excerpts of music by the composers, including – right on cue as I stood staring into his eyes – Mussorgsky’s Great Gate of Kiev.

The exhibition ends on June 26th – don’t miss it – or else you’ll have to travel to Moscow to see these portraits.  Read a review here.


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Promenade; Il Vecchio Castello. A Castle in the Clouds?

Mussorgsky is on the move again. The key of the familiar Promenade  is now a tone lower than at the opening, more reflective, less brash, and the melody is in the tenor register as an unaccompanied solo voice, repeated with added chords above it , rather than below. The choice of harmonies, texture and range create a change of mood; the music is thoughtful, and instead of an emphatic final perfect cadence, Mussorgsky uses an open-ended imperfect cadence, ushering us along to the next picture.

Hartmann travelled widely in Europe, and his exhibition featured sketches from his journeys. He made a watercolour sketch of The Old CastleIl Vecchio Castello – I wonder which one, and where? The picture no longer exists, but Mussorgsky’s music will sketch a different castle in the mind of each listener. To fuel the imagination, below is the Rocca Borromeo di Angera, Borromeo Castle in Angera, dated 1880, drawn by writer and painter Samuel Butler.

Angera Castle


Mussorgsky adds a troubadour playing a lute to his musical representation of the castle; this is a stroke of genius, adding the human dimension. The preceding Promenade cadence now resolves onto a tonic of G# minor; a  LH drone underpins a melody which is modal, meandering and melancholy. Marked Andante molto cantabile e con dolore, a rocking 6/8 time signature and irregular phrase lengths add to the hypnotic feel of the music. Unhurried, it moves sadly towards its conclusion, becoming ever more fragmented and broken, repeating itself as if constantly revisiting painful memories. Mysterious chords and a final, defiant gesture of the two opening notes of the melody bring us to the end. The tonic lingers on in the bass, unwilling to let go.

Here is Pletnev –



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Gnomus – the Nutcracker Gnome

GnomeA sudden shock. After the brisk stride of Mussorgsky’s Promenade, the gait changes to the lurching, limping stagger of ‘Gnomus’: a picture of a toy nutcracker in the shape of a Gnome, with crooked legs. Hartmann’s picture no longer exists, but the music tells us much. This is not a humorously benevolent garden gnome; it’s more the darkly malevolent variety. Perhaps the image on the left captures something of the idea.

In an abrupt change, the noble, B flat major chordal texture of the Promenade disappears, replaced by a gruff , E flat minor melody in the low register, with halting, staggering steps, pausing to catch its breath.

RH syncopated chords descend as the LH ascends in ungainly intervals; the music pivots around and halts, like an uncontrolled movement, brusquely checked.

The hands share crawling octaves and wide uneven steps, suddenly reversed, before menacing LH trills and evil chromatic snarls below swooping RH chords crescendo to piercing dissonances and a petrified silence – and a quick, frantic sprint in contrary motion to the safety of the final chord.

Below, Byron Janis performs ‘Gnomus’ from Mussorgsky’s Pictures at an Exhibition. The artwork below is by Natasha Turovsky.


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